Product-Service Systems (PSS)

A product–service system (PSS) can be defined as consisting of "tangible products and intangible services designed and combined so that they jointly are capable of fulfilling specific customer needs" .  The term covers a wide range of business models from product-oriented (such as maintenance contracts), to use-oriented (such as leasing and sharing), to result-oriented (such as pay-per-use, or Philips Pay per Lux).  (Tukker, 2004)

PSS models, in particular the ‘result-oriented’ PSS, have the potential to align environmental and economic incentives.  In theory, it would be in the interest of both producer and consumer to extend product lifetime and minimize life-cycle costs.



The term “second-life” refers to re-use, refurbish or remanufacture.  In second-life circular paths, the product remains as a product or components.  It is different from recycling, in which the product is disintegrated and recovered as raw materials.

In CIRCUSOL, second-life PV are used modules which are repaired, refurbished, or suitable for direct re-use; second-life batteries are retired EV batteries which are remanufactured for stationary applications such as PV storage.